2.8 On Why Forceful Leads Are Not Required

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対訳


2.8 On Why Forceful Leads Are Not Required
   なぜリードは力を入れることが不要なのか

When a man leads his partner he first must know exactly where he wants his partner to go.
男子が女子をリードするときは、男子は女子が動くべき場所がどこかを正しく知っておかなければならない。

His lead must be resolute, confident, PRECISE.
男子のリードは、毅然とした、自信にあふれた、精密なものでなければならない。

As a leader you should adhere to the "rule of TBC" (Tender But Compelling)
リーダーたるものは、TBTルール(優しくしかし確固たるリード)を絶対に守らなければならない。

Without words, his body should communicate his intentions to her so well that her body has almost no choice but to follow.
言うまでもなく、男子のボディは、女子のボディがフォローするほかにほとんど選択肢がないように、男子の意図をはっきりと伝えなければならない。

This is not to imply that a strong lead is the product of "muscle power" developed in the gymnasium.
このことは、強いリードがジムで鍛えられた筋肉の力の産物であるということを示唆しているわけではない。

The leader's timing and clarity of purpose is essentially what "powers" the "tender but compelling" communication to his partner that almost seems to appear in her body - something approaching ventriloquism, something so skilled that I'm barely aware of it at all.
リーダーのタイミングと目的の明確さこそが、フォロアーへの優しくしかし確固たるリードに力を与えるもの、すなわち腹話術的で、フォロアーにほとんどまったく意識させないようなものなのである。

(Of course the follower must be "totally ready mentally and physically" to execute just what her leader is compelling her to do).
(もちろんフォロアーはリーダーがフォロアーにやらせようとする何かだけを実行するために、心理的にも肉体的にも100%準備ができていなければならない。)

_____


Leaders - if you don't dictate where your partner's body should be at every moment, it won't be there
リーダーへ。もしパートナーのボディが何時でもどこにいるべきか示さなければ、そのボディはそこにはいないであろう。

(and as a good leader, if it doesn't end up where you planned, you quickly change plans - remember, "leading" is really "leading AND following".) 
(そして、上手なリーダーとしては、もしそのボディが、自分の計画通りの場所にまで行かなかったとすれば、間髪を入れず計画を代えなければならない。思い出しなさい。リードというのは正しくはリードかつフォローであることを。

tama注:
この「リードというのは正しくはリードかつフォローである」と言う言葉は、男子が肝に銘じるべき言葉だと思います。むちゃくちゃ力をいれたり女子を振り回すことがリードだと勘違いしている男子が多すぎます。

Consequently, when leading you restrict her choices until there is no choice; it should feel to her like the most natural (and only) thing to do.
リードのとき、その必然的な結果として、それ以外は女子の選択肢がなくなるように制限すれば、女子にとってはそれが、もっとも自然な(かつ唯一の)動作と感じることになるであろう。

This works well with a good follower who knows the rules of following since within these rules she has only one option.
これはこれらのフォローのルールを知っている上手なフォロアーにはうまく働くであろう。なぜならこれらのルールの下では彼女は唯一の選択肢しかないからである。

With a beginner follower, some leads are likely to be met with a good deal of resistance.
初心者のフォロアーと踊る場合は、いくつかのリードは、かなりの抵抗に直面することが予想される。

In this case a stronger lead will probably just be met with more resistance.
この場合には、おそらく、力を入れたリードであればあるほど、よりいっそうの抵抗に会うことになるだろう。

If you overpower her, she will usually give in - and the move will not be smooth and will feel terrible for both you and her.
もしリーダーが女子を力で圧倒しようとすれば、彼女は普通は降参するだろうが、動きはギクシャクして、男子、女子両方にとってもひどく不快なものになるだろう。

I find that if I give up leading when I'm met with unusual resistance, the beginner follower will be more likely to want to try again and will make a real attempt not to anticipate that it is a move in her current and limited repertoire.
わたしは次のようなことに気がついた。もし異常な抵抗に会って、私がリードするのをあきらめると、初心者のフォロアーはもう一度トライして見たいという傾向になり、そして、それ(私のリード)が、その初心者自身の現時点の限られたレパートリーのなかの一つであるという予測を立てないように努力するようになるということを。

Your partner will be more likely to look at this as a learning experience and thank you for showing her some new stuff rather than apologize and probably think that she wasn't good enough to dance with you.
あなたのパートナー(その初心者のパートナー)は、そのことをダンスを習得するひとつの経験だとみなす傾向がより強くなり、弁解したり、あなたと踊るには十分上手ではないと考えるよりも、目新しいことをあなたが示してくれたことに対して感謝する傾向になっていくことだろう。

At times I have had advanced beginners backlead and start doing something they know when the first part of the lead is identical to what I intended.
時々、ある場合に、先走って彼らが知っているなにかのステップを始めようとする中級者に出会うことがあった。それは、私が意図したステップと、リードの最初の部分が同一だった場合である。

If I am giving no lead and my partner just takes off, I used to be inclined to hold her back.
もし私がなにもリードせず、相手が動き始めようとしたとき、よく彼女の背中をホールドしようとしたものである。

I've come to find it's really not worth the effort and just makes a mistake look worse than it really was.
しかしそうすることは努力に見合う価値がなく、間違いを余計悪く見せるだけだという結論に達した。

Of course, it's not always her fault...
もちろんそのことがいつでも彼女のせいだというわけではない。

While I've had the experience of meeting enough resistance to prevent proper dance movement, I've later found in all such cases that my own technique was lacking in some way.
私は、正しいダンスのムーブメントを妨げるに十分な抵抗に出会った経験があるが、後になってそういったケースはすべて私自身の技術がなんらかの部分で欠けているということを悟った。

Admittedly, with sufficiently poor followers, very subtle faults in the lead can result in major problems.
認めざるを得ないことだが、本当に下手なフォロアーとでは、リードにおけるほんのわずかの欠点が大きな問題を引き起こしうるのである。

_____


Eddie Harper defines lead as "An indication of speed and direction without force or verbal communication " and defines follow as "traveling in the path of least resistance."
Eddie Harperは、リードを「力を入れることなく言葉によるコミュニケーションもせずにスピードと方向を指示すること」と定義し、またフォローを「最小限の抵抗でコースを移動すること」と定義する。

Some say that a lead is an invitation.
ある人たちは、リードを「invitation(招き入れること、誘い)」だという。

The term, "invitation" is not synonymous with leading - in fact this is probably the most inaccurate description of leading I have ever heard.
しかし「invitation」という言葉は「leading」と同義ではない。実際のところ、この言葉は私が今まで聞いた中ではleadingのもっとも不正確な表現である。

A lead should never be just an invitation to do something.
リードは決して何かをするための「invitation(誘い)」などではない。

Instead, a good lead clearly and unquestionably places the follower where she should be - there is never a moment where the follower thinks, "Hmm...shall I accept his invitation?"
そうではなく、優れたリードというのは、明確に、疑問の余地なく、フォロアーを本来彼女がいるべき位置に誘導するのである。フォロアーが「ええっと、彼の誘いを受けるべきかしら」などと考える瞬間はあり得ない。

That is, a proper lead will leave the follower with no choice whatsoever.
適切なリードというものは、それがなんであれ選択する余地をフォロアーに与えない。

When communicating his intent through a lead, the man must "speak" clearly - if he "mumbles" the lady cannot understand no matter how good she is at following;
リードを通して自分の意図を伝えようとする場合、男子ははっきり「話す」(伝える)ことが必要である。もし彼がもごもご言っていたら、どれだけフォローに熟達していたとしても、女子は理解できない。

_____


With better followers, one really does have a choice in techniques.
より優れたフォロアーとであれば、リーダーは、(いくつかの)技術的選択肢を持つ。

I've heard of debates between Bill Irvine (a former world ballroom dance champion) and his primary rival from the '60s, Peter Eggleton, where Bill Irvine would say that one should always put the lady exactly where you want her, and Peter Eggleton would object, saying that one should rather permit the lady the freedom of going to the right place.
わたしは、ビル・アービン(元ボールルーム世界チャンピオン)と、60年代に彼の一番のライバルだったピーター・エグルトンとの間の議論のことを聞いたことがある。ビル・アービンは、「リーダーは常に、フォロアーにいてほしいところに、正確に女子を置かなければいけない」と常々主張し、ピーター・エグルトンはいつも、「リーダーはむしろ、正しい位置に移動する自由を女子に許すようにしなければならない」と反論していたそうである。

I myself prefer the latter philosophy with ladies who follow reasonably well, and the former is not always realistic in practice.
私自身は、適度にうまくフォローできる女子に対しては後者のほうが好きである。前者は練習においては必ずしも現実的ではない。

tama注:以下の2行は、ECS(East Coast Swing)についてなので、省略

For example, an ECS crosshanded tuck-turn (American-spin), where the only connection is right hand to right hand. 

A beginner has a choice of simply letting simply letting her elbow go back behind her torso, which, given that she is a beginner is likely what she'll do because at her level of dancing following means letting yourself be pulled around.

____


There are definitely techniques that can be used to give a more assured, less ambiguous lead to beginners.
もちろん、初心者に対して、より確実な、より明瞭なリードを与えるために用いられる技術は存在する。

For instance, when dancing socially, I could usually get people to dance continuity style properly even when they had never done it before simply by making sure they had their weight over the proper foot and taking a very strong foot rise to keep them from changing weight too soon.
たとえば、ダンスパーティでは、私は、パートナーに対して彼らが以前やったことのないステップであったとしても、礼儀正しく滑らかなスタイルで踊らせる。彼らが正しい足にきちんと体重を乗せることを確認することと、彼らが体重の切り替えを早くやり過ぎないように、強いフットライズをすることによって。

The concept of leading is not something that can be easily passed on by pen (or word processor) But here goes...
リードの概念は、ペン(あるいはワープロ)ですらすら書けるようなものではないのだが....

In Swing as in all forms of partner dance there are three overriding factors for good lead and follow:
パートナーダンスのすべての形においてと同様に、スイングにおいては、優れたリード/フォローにおいて決定的な要素が三つある。

1. Each person is responsible for their own balance. (However, for many moves, you need to put some slight weight behind your connection and use your partner for an instant - to help start turning for example in an American Spin.
 (&color(#0099FF){カップルの})それぞれは自分自身のバランスについて責任を持たなければならない。(しかしながら、多くのムーブメントにおいては、あなたは自分のコネクションを通じて、ある瞬間は、相手に自分の体重の幾分かを与える必要が出てくる。たとえばアメリカン・スピンのように。

tama注:
アメリカン・スピンというのは、ウェストコーストスイングで、通常女性と向き合った位置で男性左手で女性の右手を押して女性を右回りさせるところを、男性右手で女性の右手を押して女性を1回転右回りさせると同時に男性が1回転右回りするステップです。私はジルバで時々やります。

Followers who hold themselves up *all* the time - those wonderfully balanced ballet dancers who have never partnered - don't give the leaders the connection they need, and thus the leaders can't do their jobs)
常に自分自身(のバランス)を支えているフォロアー達、すなわちいままでパートナーダンスをした経験のない、優れたバランスを持ったバレーダンサーは、リーダーが必要とするコネクションをリーダーに与えることができず、結果としてリーダーは自分の仕事をすることができない。

2. The center line of each partner should always be in a relationship towards the other.
 それぞれのパートナーの中心線は常に相手に対して一定の関係を保っていなければならない。

3. The lead should be just that- a lead: not a victory in a tug of war.
 

The partner must react to the leaders initial action, not resist the lead until his force overcomes her resistance.


"*Leader must compensate. Follower must compensate.


If a follower moves far away from the leader, it is good dancing for the leader to follow the follower out instead of tugging her back into position.


Also, the follower must compensate for poor indications from the leader."


Applying physics to ballroom dancing leads to the pushy F=MA view.


The proper theoretical basis of ballroom dancing is signal analysis.


Leading is negative feedback, and following is positive feedback.


Dancers should strive for high gain with stability.


Here's a metaphor that an engineer might relish: positive and negative feedback.

____


I notice that a lot of beginning (or maybe just: bad) followers react to my pull at the start of a WCS pattern by pulling back. Instead of coming forward of their own accord, they act as if they're standing on a skate board, and I'm a doorknob: they pull to move themselves forward. Some will even lean back, really hanging off me. Expecting of course that I, as the studly stud, will be rock steady and thus make them come forward. I hate that. (I've managed to floor one woman by inadvertently letting go while she was hanging off me like that.)

____


Trying to rationalize I would say that their reaction to the pull at the start of a pattern is to increase the tension. Ultimately this will move them forward, but it's a waste of energy. The correct reaction to my pull would be that they move themselves in order to *lessen* the tension. The opposite also happens: in a push break I push on the 4th beat or thereabouts. I've encountered (thank goodness very few!) followers who will give me a sharp push at that point. This has zero effect, because I'm not a wall: my muscles absorb this shock. It does start to hurt amazingly fast. Same story as above: when they feel my compression (push) they should not increase the tension (as if they push themselves off a wall), but try to decrease it.

____


So, the correct action would be positive feedback (they make themselves move more than a purely rigid system would do, given my force exerted), while the incorrect one is negative feedback (trying to counteract my force exerted, and only moving as a side effect of this).

____


原文


出所:

2.8 On Why Forceful Leads Are Not Required
When a man leads his partner he first must know exactly where he wants his partner to go. His lead must be resolute, confident, PRECISE. As a leader you should adhere to the "rule of TBC" (Tender But Compelling) Without words, his body should communicate his intentions to her so well that her body has almost no choice but to follow. This is not to imply that a strong lead is the product of "muscle power" developed in the gymnasium. The leader's timing and clarity of purpose is essentially what "powers" the "tender but compelling" communication to his partner that almost seems to appear in her body - something approaching ventriloquism, something so skilled that I'm barely aware of it at all. (Of course the follower must be "totally ready mentally and physically" to execute just what her leader is compelling her to do).

Leaders - if you don't dictate where your partner's body should be at every moment, it won't be there (and as a good leader, if it doesn't end up where you planned, you quickly change plans - remember, "leading" is really "leading AND following".) Consequently, when leading you restrict her choices until there is no choice; it should feel to her like the most natural (and only) thing to do. This works well with a good follower who knows the rules of following since within these rules she has only one option. With a beginner follower, some leads are likely to be met with a good deal of resistance. In this case a stronger lead will probably just be met with more resistance. If you overpower her, she will usually give in - and the move will not be smooth and will feel terrible for both you and her. I find that if I give up leading when I'm met with unusual resistance, the beginner follower will be more likely to want to try again and will make a real attempt not to anticipate that it is a move in her current and limited repertoire. Your partner will be more likely to look at this as a learning experience and thank you for showing her some new stuff rather than apologize and probably think that she wasn't good enough to dance with you. At times I have had advanced beginners backlead and start doing something they know when the first part of the lead is identical to what I intended. If I am giving no lead and my partner just takes off, I used to be inclined to hold her back. I've come to find it's really not worth the effort and just makes a mistake look worse than it really was. Of course, it's not always her fault... While I've had the experience of meeting enough resistance to prevent proper dance movement, I've later found in all such cases that my own technique was lacking in some way. Admittedly, with sufficiently poor followers, very subtle faults in the lead can result in major problems.

Eddie Harper defines lead as "An indication of speed and direction without force or verbal communication " and defines follow as "traveling in the path of least resistance." Some say that a lead is an invitation. The term, "invitation" is not synony mous with leading - in fact this is probably the most inaccurate description of leading I have ever heard. A lead should never be just an invitation to do something. Instead, a good lead clearly and unquestionably places the follower where she should be - there is never a moment where the follower thinks, "Hmm...shall I accept his invitation?" That is, a proper lead will leave the follower with no choice whatsoever. When communicating his intent through a lead, the man must "speak" clearly - if he "mumbles" the lady cannot understand no matter how good she is at following;

With better followers, one really does have a choice in techniques. I've heard of debates between Bill Irvine (a former world ballroom dance champion) and his primary rival from the '60s, Peter Eggleton, where Bill Irvine would say that one should always put the lady exactly where you want her, and Peter Eggleton would object, saying that one should rather permit the lady the freedom of going to the right place. I myself prefer the latter philosophy with ladies who follow reasonably well, and the former is not always realistic in practice. For example, an ECS crosshanded tuck-turn (American-spin), where the only connection is right hand to right hand. A beginner has a choice of simply letting simply letting her elbow go back behind her torso, which, given that she is a beginner is likely what she'll do because at her level of dancing following means letting yourself be pulled around.

There are definitely techniques that can be used to give a more assured, less ambiguous lead to beginners. For instance, when dancing socially, I could usually get people to dance continuity style properly even when they had never done it before simply by making sure they had their weight over the proper foot and taking a very strong foot rise to keep them from changing weight too soon.

The concept of leading is not something that can be easily passed on by pen (or word processor) But here goes...

In Swing as in all forms of partner dance there are three overriding factors for good lead and follow:

 1. Each person is responsible for their own balance. (However, for many moves, you need to put some slight weight behind your connection and use your partner for an instant - to help start turning for example in an American Spin. Followers who hold themselves up *all* the time - those wonderfully balanced ballet dancers who have never partnered - don't give the leaders the connection they need, and thus the leaders can't do their jobs)
  2. The center line of each partner should always be in a relationship towards the other.
  3. The lead should be just that- a lead: not a victory in a tug of war. The partner must react to the leaders initial action, not resist the lead until his force overcomes her resistance. 

"*Leader must compensate. Follower must compensate. If a follower moves far away from the leader, it is good dancing for the leader to follow the follower out instead of tugging her back into position. Also, the follower must compensate for poor indications from the leader."

Applying physics to ballroom dancing leads to the pushy F=MA view. The proper theoretical basis of ballroom dancing is signal analysis. Leading is negative feedback, and following is positive feedback. Dancers should strive for high gain with stability. Here's a metaphor that an engineer might relish: positive and negative feedback.

I notice that a lot of beginning (or maybe just: bad) followers react to my pull at the start of a WCS pattern by pulling back. Instead of coming forward of their own accord, they act as if they're standing on a skate board, and I'm a doorknob: they pull to move themselves forward. Some will even lean back, really hanging off me. Expecting of course that I, as the studly stud, will be rock steady and thus make them come forward. I hate that. (I've managed to floor one woman by inadvertently letting go while she was hanging off me like that.)

Trying to rationalize I would say that their reaction to the pull at the start of a pattern is to increase the tension. Ultimately this will move them forward, but it's a waste of energy. The correct reaction to my pull would be that they move themselves in order to *lessen* the tension. The opposite also happens: in a push break I push on the 4th beat or thereabouts. I've encountered (thank goodness very few!) followers who will give me a sharp push at that point. This has zero effect, because I'm not a wall: my muscles absorb this shock. It does start to hurt amazingly fast. Same story as above: when they feel my compression (push) they should not increase the tension (as if they push themselves off a wall), but try to decrease it.

So, the correct action would be positive feedback (they make themselves move more than a purely rigid system would do, given my force exerted), while the incorrect one is negative feedback (trying to counteract my force exerted, and only moving as a side effect of this).



  • 最終更新:2012-01-02 22:41:49

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