2.2 On Arm Tone

概要

まだ4分の3くらい和訳しただけですが、公開しておきます。

なお、テンションという言葉に精神的な緊張という意味があるために、筋肉に力を入れて体を緊張させると解釈しがちですが、物理的にはロープをピンと張った状態を指しますので誤解のないように。




対訳



2.2 On Arm Tone
   アームトーンについて


Arm tension is possibly the most important aspect to good dancing.
アームテンションはおそらくダンスを踊るためのもっとも重要な側面である。

Sometimes very firm arm tension is required, and other times, spaghetti-like arm tension is needed.
あるときは非常にしっかりしたアームテンションが必要になるが、また別なときにはスパゲッティ-のようなアームテンションが必要になる。

Followers and leaders, over time, should develop a good sense of when to have strong arm tension and when to be loose.
リーダーもフォロアーもどんなときに強いアームテンションを持ち、どんなときにそれを抜くかについての優れた感覚を養わなければならない。

It is especially important in West Coast Swing to use different levels of arm tension depending on the figure (see Sensitivity exercise 3).
ウェストコーストスィング(tama注:ジルバに多少似たダンス)の場合フィギュアに応じていろいろなレベルのアームテンションを用いることが特に大事である。

In general, firm arm tension is desired.
一般的に言ってしっかりしたアームテンションが望ましい。

_____


Followers:
フォロアーの場合:

In general, the side to side motion of your arms should be connected to your body, while the vertical movement is free.
普通、横方向の腕の動きは体に連動していなければならないが、一方垂直方向の動きはフリーでよい。

That way movement in the horizontal plane causes the follower to move or turn, while the vertical movement is free for underarm turns, etc.
水平面の動きはフォロアーに移動ないし回転を引き起こさせるが、一方アンダーアームターンなどでは垂直の動きはフリーである。
(tama注:アンダーアームターンは、スタンダード系のダンスであってもアメリカンスムースの場合、一般的なフィギュアである)

You should not have spaghetti-like arms in the horizontal plane, or provide resistance in the vertical direction (other than in say, a death-drop).
水平面ではスパゲティーのような(tama注:ふにゃふにゃした)アームテンションであってはならないし、垂直方向は逆に抵抗を持たせてはならない(完全に脱力した状態ではだめだが)。

Keeping one's arm loose to move up and down but firm in a direction in which moving it would turn your body is very difficult to learn.
アームを、上下方向の動きには力を抜いて、それを回転させるような動きの方向にはしっかりしたテンションをもたせるというのを習得するのは大変難しい。

Women who are learning alternate between keeping the arm too loose in all directions and too stiff in all directions, not realizing that they need a combination of both at the same time.
習得中の女性は、自分たちが同時に両方を組み合わせることが必要だと言うことを認識しないままで、どの方向においても、力を抜きすぎたり入れすぎたりするのである。

_____


Trying to find the ideal balance between "tone" and "relaxation."
トーンとリラックスとの間の理想的なバランスを見つけることについて:

It is NOT an easy concept to integrate, even after one is consciously aware.
それを意識するようになった人であっても、それらを統合した概念を持つことは容易ではない。

Something I think is helpful to get the proper feel in your arms is to face a wall from a distance an inch or so farther than your extended arms' fingertips.
自分のアームのなかに正しいフィーリングを感じるために助けになると思われるのは、以下のことである。
まず腕と指先を前方に伸ばして壁から1インチほど離れた位置に立つ。

Fall toward the refrigerator and PUSH yourself back to erect.
そして、壁に向かって倒れていき、自分をもう一度直立させるよう押し返す。

If you don't catch yourself soon enough or with enough tone, your nose will let you know.
もし、適切なトーンでもってすぐに体を支えなければ、鼻を壁にぶつけてしまう。

If you push too hard, your feet will let you know.
もし強く押し返しすぎたら、たたらを踏むことになる。

If your arms are too stiff, your shoulders and/or neck will let you know.
もしアームが固すぎたら、肩と首にショックがくることになる。


_____


Another general rule of thumb on tone:
トーンについての別な一般的な秘訣:

When dancing, try to maintain the same level of communication between your hands and your partners hands.
ダンスをするとき、自分と相手の手の間のコミュニケーションのレベルを一定に保つようにすること。

That is, whenever possible, maintain an equal amount of pressure against (with) each other.
すなわちできるだけお互いの手の間の圧力を一定に保つこと。

This makes both dancers extremely sensitive to one another since any slight deviation in pressure is a clear indication of what lead is being given.
これによって、その圧力のほんのちょっとした変化がお互いにどんな種類のリードが与えられるかと言う明確なシグナルになるので、両方の踊り手がお互いに対する感覚を研ぎ澄ますことができるようになる。

There is a marvelous subtlety in leading and following that can be experienced if both dancers eliminate dead space in the communication that exists between the hands and body.
もし両方の踊り手が自分の手と体の間のコミュニケーションにおけるデッドスペース(tama注: 体の動きと手の動きが連動しない領域)を排除することができるなら、すばらしく繊細なリード・フォローを経験することができる。

_____


Don't let the movement of your lower body interfere with the non-movement of the upper body.
下半身の動きが、上半身の動きに影響を与えないようにしなければならない。

That is, do not create noise in your arms when you move your hips or kick with your feet.
すなわち腰を動かしたり足を動かしたりしてもアームの動きに伝わらないようにすること。

Maintain proper arm tension..." Don't be a "busy body" - a quiet body allows woman to distinguish leads, and looks much better.
アームテンションを正しく保つこと。busy body(tama注:体を不要に動かす)であってはならない。quiet bodyを保つことが女性に対してリードを明確に感じさせ、そして男性をより良く見せる。

_____


Your arms are an extension of your body, not a separate entity.
アームは体の延長であって、別のものではない。

Thus, your body should be responsive to anything that is done to your arms.
というわけで、もしアームに加えられた影響が何であってもそれに対して体は反応しなければならない。

If you have spaghetti-like arms, you will not be responsive since you will miss indications from the leader.
もしスパゲッティ-のような(ふにゃふにゃした)アームであればリーダーからのシグナルを見逃してしまうので反応することができない。

You will miss these indications because they will be absorbed by your arms instead of sensed by your arms.
つまりそれらのシグナルがアームで感じ取られるのでなく吸収されてしまうためにそれらのシグナルを見落としてしまうと言うことである。

If you press your finger into Jell-O, it will just get absorbed, but if you press your finger against a rock, the rock will move.
Jell-O(訳注:米国で子供に人気のあるジェリー状のお菓子)を指で押すと指がめり込むだけだが岩を指で押すと岩が動くようなものである。

Do not separate your arms and body (except in a few advanced figures)."
決してアームと体を分離してはならない(二、三の上級フィガーを除いて。

_____


Close your eyes sometimes when dancing to really try to understand that much of this dance is done with communication in the body and arms .
ダンスしているとき、時々は目をつぶって見ること。それがダンスの多くの要素は体とアームの間のコミュニケーションでなされているということを理解する試みになる。

(recall the tension tip earlier on arms and body not being separate entities)

Dance an entire song with your eyes closed and just try to listen to one another through your arms and body.
目をつぶったまま、自分のアームとボディーを通じて、相手のやろうとしていることに耳を澄ませながら一曲終わるまで踊って見ること。

Don't do complicated figures, of course, but play around with different types of tension and listen to one another through your arms.
もちろん複雑なフィギュアはせずにいろいろなタイプのテンションでもって、アームを通して相手を聴くこと。
_____


Typically, the word "tone" is used since the arms should not be tense, i.e. where extending and retracting muscles are both "on".
「トーン」ということばが典型的に使われるのは、アームは決して固めてはいけない、たとえば(tama注:関節を)のばす筋肉と曲げる筋肉の両方に力を入れるなど)。

Instead, the arm should act like a spring with a matching opposing force either pushing or pulling.
その代わりに、押されたときや引っ張られたときそれに見合う反対の力を発生するスプリングのようにアームを使うべきだと言うことである。

Sometimes you have to react to a lead by simply moving, other times (boogie walk or jive walk in east coast swing) giving the exact amount of counter resistance.
あるときはリードに対して単純にその方向に動くよう反応したり、別な場合は、それとまったく同一な反対方向の力で抵抗したりすることが必要である。

This "connection" is a harder thing to quantify than textbook technique.
この関係はテクニックの本では量的にあらわしにくいものである。
_____


In order to overcome spaghetti arms many teachers use the word "resistance".
スパゲティアームを克服するために、多くの教師が「resistance(レジスタンスないし抵抗)」という言葉を使う。

Resistance, while getting the immediate result, creates a whole new set of problems.
Resistanceという言葉はすぐにその結果が表れる一方、それは全く新しい一連の問題を引き起こす。

Any top teacher knows that arm "resistance" is wrong.
トップクラスの教師はだれでも「アームレジスタンス」なるものが間違いだということを知っている。

Instead of locking the biceps and forearm muscles to create resistance, a good teacher teaches to isolate the upper pectoral muscle which locks the entire arm in place eliminating the spaghetti arm yet making for a easily leadable follower.
レジスタンスを作り出すために上腕二頭筋と前腕筋をロックするやり方でなく、その代り、すぐれた教師は、スパゲティアームになることなくそれでも容易にリードできるフォロアーになれるように、腕全体を適切な位置にロックする上部胸筋を独立させる方法を教える。

Skippy Blair uses the term Action/Reaction which while partially explaining lead and follow, is more suitable than "resistance".
Skippy Blair(tama注:著名なスイングダンスの教師)は、部分的にはリード/フォローを説明するアクション/リアクションという用語を使う。その言葉はレジスタンスよりももっと適切なのであるが。

_____


While many teachers teach beginners to lock the biceps & forearm muscles and pull, we (Enio Cordoba) teach that you lock the upper pectoral & lattisimus dorsi muscles while keeping the arm and forearm relaxed , pliable and responsive (toned).
多くの教師は初心者に上腕二頭筋と前腕筋をロックするように教えるが、私 Enio Cordoba (tama注:ブラックプール選手権プロラテン準々決勝)は、上腕と前腕を、リラックスさせ、しなやかで、かつすぐ反応できるようトーンを持たせたままで、上部胸筋と広背筋をロックするように教える。

_____


In my experience, the stiffness or heaviness in a follower's arm is often an unconscious protective response to leads that are too strong and/or dangerous (or leads that are perceived as such).
私の経験では、フォロアーの腕が固まっていたり重かったりするのは、しばしば、強すぎたり危険すぎるリード(あるいはそのように受け取られてしまうリード)に対する無意識な反応であることがある。

For example I really dislike being led in a barrel roll on a crowded dance floor, because I fear crashing into my partner or being sent crashing into other dancers.
例をあげると、混んだダンスフロアでほかのカップルをくるくる回ってよけるようにリードされるのは本当に嫌いです。というのはパートナーにぶつかったり、ほかのダンサーにぶつかるのが怖いからです。

To paraphrase something Maxwell Ho once said: You have to *train* your followers to trust you.
Maxwell Ho(tama注:たぶんウェストコーストスイングのダンス教師」がかつて言ったことで言い換えると、「リーダーは、フォロアーがリーダーを信頼するように訓練しなければならない」ということです。

_____


(I love this description) Personally, I like a good strong "breathing" connection for W.C. Swing.
(私はこの表現がすきですが)個人的には、私は、ウェストコーストスイングでは、呼吸による十分強いコネクションが好みです。

Like you say, this does *not* mean rigid, but there should definitely be some sensuous push and pull to it 8^).


_____


The woman's arm should be in a comfortable position, not overly extended (nor stiff) nor overly bent (nor too relaxed).
女性の腕は、伸ばしすぎず(がちがちでなく)、曲げすぎず(かといってリラックスしすぎない)楽な位置にしておくべきです。


If her arm is fully extended, it's not natural nor comfortable, it's difficult to absorb shocks, it's tiring, and it looks silly. It's much better to have a slightly bent and relaxed arm position, not quite fully extended.
もし女性の腕が伸びきってしまっていると、自然でもないし楽でもありません。それではショックを吸収するのがむずかしく、くたびれるし、間が抜けて見えます。

The man's arm position is similar.
男性の腕の位置も同様です。

Both have to have tone (if the body moves, the arm moves with it.)
両方ともトーンをもたなければなりません(つまり、ボディが動くときは、それにつれて腕も動きます)

Some say the default level for hands is the woman's center of gravity.
何人かは、手の基本的な高さは女性の重心の高さであると言っています。

Where is that? About 2 inches below her navel.
それはどこか?彼女のおへそのおよそ2インチ下にあります。(tama注:2インチは約5センチ)

_____


Bev Donahue, a former International champion who now coaches pros and judges comps like the Ohio Star Ball, and other pro teachers stress the use of "short arms" in swing (and jive).
Bev Donahueや、彼は元世界チャンピオンで今はプロやオハイオ・スターボールなどの競技会ジャッジのコーチをしていますが、そのほかのプロの教師たちはスイングダンス(そしてジャイブ)においては"short arms"の使用を強く勧めています。

"Short arms" means never extend fully, always keep them bent.
"Short arms"というのは、決して伸ばしてしまわずつねに曲げているアームを意味します。

The angle varies as you dance.
曲げる角度はダンスに応じて変化します。

"Short arms" look better and give you and your partner better control for leading and following.
"Short arms"は見た目が良くなるし、あなたとあなたのパートナーのリード/フォローのコントロールをより良くすることができます。

The idea is not to be rigid; you want to convey strength AND flexibility - a certain springiness.


There is body weight involved, and a good, simple exercise is: partners face each other, elbows bent about 90 degrees, hands more or less at waist level, and connect with a pistol grip: lady's hands are palms down, wrists lowered, fingers hooked over guy's; guy's palms face each other, fingers bent inwards so lady can hook hers over the top.


No grabbing! The hands are loosely hooked, that's all.


Now lean into each other, then away from each other, feeling each other's body weight.


The trick is to match each other's use of body weight to maintain your balance as a couple.


That's the kind of connection you want to feel in swing.


When you get used to it, it feels VERY good, and you and your partner can be most responsive to each other using this technique.


It applies to most if not all rhythm and Latin dancing as well, and can be used with other types of connections such as "patty-cake" and "sugar-push" hand-holds.


This advice applies to both partners. If leaders can use their posture, dance frame and body weight effectively, they'll never have to "strong-arm" a woman to get her to follow.


The quickest way to learn this is to practice it with a pro and get corrective feedback.

_____


Watch out for "chipmunk arms" - elbows down, paws up in front of the chest, as well for as "chicken wings" - elbows bent and sticking out far behind your back.

_____


The lady should generally match the leader's arm extension.


When you shake hands with someone, where do you put your hand?


In their face or chest? No, you extend it midway between you both.


Same for dancing.


In WCS, the angle between the man's upper arm and forearm changes from 90 through 135 degrees.


For the woman, this is 90 to almost 180 (straight) - never lock elbows (or knees) when dancing.


One of the reasons is that you cannot maintain connection if you lock your elbow.

_____


Both short arms (bent at the elbow) and long arms (extended but not locked, with shoulders down) are appropriate at various times in West Coast Swing, as long as:

  a good, centered body line in both partners results, and


  it matches a lead/follow resulting from movements of the dance. 


This usually means (for me) short arms for the usual "basic" patterns, and anytime the woman is turning or moving by me in the slot, and "long arms" in an extended line, sometimes with the man well into the right knee, left leg pointed straight out to the side, woman in a sit break, or some other leg line (a "show off" pattern of some sort")

_____


The follower should match the arm extension of the leader.


On a crowded dance floor, the leader might keep his arm in close.


If the follower does not match and keep her arm in close, the leader may not be able to keep his partner from crashing into someone else.


Also, when the music is fast, the arms usually extend less to reduce the movement.


Both short arms (bent at the elbow) and long arms (extended but not locked, with shoulders down) are appropriate at various times in West Coast Swing, as long as

  a good, centered body line in both partners results, and
   it matches a lead/follow resulting from movements of the dance. 

This usually means short arms for the usual "basic" patterns, and anytime the woman is turning or moving by me in the slot, and "long arms" in an extended line, sometimes with the man well into the right knee, left leg pointed straight out to the side, woman in a sit break, or some other leg line (a "show off" pattern of some sort")

_____






原文


出所:

2.2 On Arm Tone

"*Arm tension is possibly the most important aspect to good dancing. Sometimes very firm arm tension is required, and other times, spaghetti-like arm tension is needed. Followers and leaders, over time, should develop a good sense of when to have strong arm tension and when to be loose. It is especially important in West Coast Swing to use different levels of arm tension depending on the figure (see Sensitivity exercise 3). In general, firm arm tension is desired."

_____


Followers: In general, the side to side motion of your arms should be connected to your body, while the vertical movement is free. That way movement in the horizontal plane causes the follower to move or turn, while the vertical movement is free for underarm turns, etc. You should not have spaghetti-like arms in the horizontal plane, or provide resistance in the vertical direction (other than in say, a death-drop). Keeping one's arm loose to move up and down but firm in a direction in which moving it would turn your body is very difficult to learn. Women who are learning alternate between keeping the arm too loose in all directions and too stiff in all directions, not realizing that they need a combination of both at the same time.

_____


Trying to find the ideal balance between "tone" and "relaxation." It is NOT an easy concept to integrate, even after one is consciously aware. Something I think is helpful to get the proper feel in your arms is to face a wall from a distance an inch or so farther than your extended arms' fingertips. Fall toward the refrigerator and PUSH yourself back to erect. If you don't catch yourself soon enough or with enough tone, your nose will let you know. If you push too hard, your feet will let you know. If your arms are too stiff, your shoulders and/or neck will let you know.

_____


Another general rule of thumb on tone: When dancing, try to maintain the same level of communication between your hands and your partners hands. That is, whenever possible, maintain an equal amount of pressure against (with) each other. This makes both dancers extremely sensitive to one another since any slight deviation in pressure is a clear indication of what lead is being given. There is a marvelous subtlety in leading and following that can be experienced if both dancers eliminate dead space in the communication that exists between the hands and body.

_____


"*Don't let the movement of your lower body interfere with the non-movement of the upper body. That is, do not create noise in your arms when you move your hips or kick with your feet. Maintain proper arm tension..." Don't be a "busy body" - a quiet body allows woman to distinguish leads, and looks much better.

_____


"*Your arms are an extension of your body, not a separate entity. Thus, your body should be responsive to anything that is done to your arms. If you have spaghetti-like arms, you will not be responsive since you will miss indications from the leader. You will miss these indications because they will be absorbed by your arms instead of sensed by your arms. If you press your finger into Jell-O, it will just get absorbed, but if you press your finger against a rock, the rock will move. Do not separate your arms and body (except in a few advanced figures)."

_____


"*Close your eyes sometimes when dancing to really try to understand that much of this dance is done with communication in the body and arms (recall the tension tip earlier on arms and body not being separate entities). Dance an entire song with your eyes closed and just try to listen to one another through your arms and body. Don't do complicated figures, of course, but play around with different types of tension and listen to one another through your arms."

_____


Typically, the word "tone" is used since the arms should not be tense, i.e. where extending and retracting muscles are both "on". Instead, the arm should act like a spring with a matching opposing force either pushing or pulling. Sometimes you have to react to a lead by simply moving, other times (boogie walk or jive walk in east coast swing) giving the exact amount of counter resistance. This "connection" is a harder thing to quantify than textbook technique.

_____


In order to overcome spaghetti arms many teachers use the word "resistance". Resistance, while getting the immediate result, creates a whole new set of problems. Any top teacher knows that arm "resistance" is wrong. Instead of locking the biceps and forearm muscles to create resistance, a good teacher teaches to isolate the upper pectoral muscle which locks the entire arm in place eliminating the spaghetti arm yet making for a easily leadable follower. Skippy Blair uses the term Action/Reaction which while partially explaining lead and follow, is more suitable than "resistance".

_____


While many teachers teach beginners to lock the biceps & forearm muscles and pull, we (Enio Cordoba) teach that you lock the upper pectoral & lattisimus dorsi muscles while keeping the arm and forearm relaxed , pliable and responsive (toned).

_____


In my experience, the stiffness or heaviness in a follower's arm is often an unconscious protective response to leads that are too strong and/or dangerous (or leads that are perceived as such). For example I really dislike being led in a barrel roll on a crowded dance floor, because I fear crashing into my partner or being sent crashing into other dancers. To paraphrase something Maxwell Ho once said: You have to *train* your followers to trust you.

_____


(I love this description) Personally, I like a good strong "breathing" connection for W.C. Swing. Like you say, this does *not* mean rigid, but there should definitely be some sensuous push and pull to it 8^).

_____


The woman's arm should be in a comfortable position, not overly extended (nor stiff) nor overly bent (nor too relaxed). If her arm is fully extended, it's not natural nor comfortable, it's difficult to absorb shocks, it's tiring, and it looks silly. It's much better to have a slightly bent and relaxed arm position, not quite fully extended. The man's arm position is similar. Both have to have tone (if the body moves, the arm moves with it.) Some say the default level for hands is the woman's center of gravity. Where is that? About 2 inches below her navel.

_____


Bev Donahue, a former International champion who now coaches pros and judges comps like the Ohio Star Ball, and other pro teachers stress the use of "short arms" in swing (and jive). "Short arms" means never extend fully, always keep them bent. The angle varies as you dance. "Short arms" look better and give you and your partner better control for leading and following. The idea is not to be rigid; you want to convey strength AND flexibility - a certain springiness. There is body weight involved, and a good, simple exercise is: partners face each other, elbows bent about 90 degrees, hands more or less at waist level, and connect with a pistol grip: lady's hands are palms down, wrists lowered, fingers hooked over guy's; guy's palms face each other, fingers bent inwards so lady can hook hers over the top. No grabbing! The hands are loosely hooked, that's all. Now lean into each other, then away from each other, feeling each other's body weight. The trick is to match each other's use of body weight to maintain your balance as a couple. That's the kind of connection you want to feel in swing. When you get used to it, it feels VERY good, and you and your partner can be most responsive to each other using this technique. It applies to most if not all rhythm and Latin dancing as well, and can be used with other types of connections such as "patty-cake" and "sugar-push" hand-holds. This advice applies to both partners. If leaders can use their posture, dance frame and body weight effectively, they'll never have to "strong-arm" a woman to get her to follow. The quickest way to learn this is to practice it with a pro and get corrective feedback.

_____


Watch out for "chipmunk arms" - elbows down, paws up in front of the chest, as well for as "chicken wings" - elbows bent and sticking out far behind your back.

_____


The lady should generally match the leader's arm extension. When you shake hands with someone, where do you put your hand? In their face or chest? No, you extend it midway between you both. Same for dancing. In WCS, the angle between the man's upper arm and forearm changes from 90 through 135 degrees. For the woman, this is 90 to almost 180 (straight) - never lock elbows (or knees) when dancing. One of the reasons is that you cannot maintain connection if you lock your elbow.

_____


Both short arms (bent at the elbow) and long arms (extended but not locked, with shoulders down) are appropriate at various times in West Coast Swing, as long as:

  a good, centered body line in both partners results, and
   it matches a lead/follow resulting from movements of the dance. 

This usually means (for me) short arms for the usual "basic" patterns, and anytime the woman is turning or moving by me in the slot, and "long arms" in an extended line, sometimes with the man well into the right knee, left leg pointed straight out to the side, woman in a sit break, or some other leg line (a "show off" pattern of some sort")

_____


The follower should match the arm extension of the leader. On a crowded dance floor, the leader might keep his arm in close. If the follower does not match and keep her arm in close, the leader may not be able to keep his partner from crashing into someone else. Also, when the music is fast, the arms usually extend less to reduce the movement. Both short arms (bent at the elbow) and long arms (extended but not locked, with shoulders down) are appropriate at various times in West Coast Swing, as long as

  a good, centered body line in both partners results, and
   it matches a lead/follow resulting from movements of the dance. 

This usually means short arms for the usual "basic" patterns, and anytime the woman is turning or moving by me in the slot, and "long arms" in an extended line, sometimes with the man well into the right knee, left leg pointed straight out to the side, woman in a sit break, or some other leg line (a "show off" pattern of some sort")



  • 最終更新:2011-07-03 08:53:02

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